Depression research from the British
Journal of Psychiatry vol 205 number 5 – November 2014.
The following information from the November edition of the British Journal of Psychiatry provides interesting information on causes of depression and others.
1) Younger people with affective disorders such as depression who also have high levels of co-morbidity relating to substance misuse also suffer marked functional impairment (Scott et al).
The authors feel that outcome assessment is more appropriate by functional parameters rather than mood symptoms alone.
2) Adult depression was associated with low birth weight but not prematurity as by systematic review and meta anlysis (Loret De Mola). The aetiology hypothesised was that there was over production of stress hormones which adversely affected the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
3) In patients suffering schizophrenia compared to those who are healthy; a more marked reduction is the size of the hippocampus was observed in terms age progression. Cognition and socio-occupational changes were more markedly affected than memory or psychosis (Pujol et al).
4) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is associated with neuro-anatomical changes including cortico-striatal region. Beucke et al demonstrated reduced connectivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and self referential processing but increased connectivity with insula and parietal cortex, associated with salience and attentional processing associated with rumination.
5) Railway suicides in Germany for psychiatric in-patient care was most strongly associated with change of therapist but also a negative or unchanged therapeutic course. But restlessness, or impulsivity was not predictive (Lukaschek et al).